The package `greeks`

provides functions to compute financial option prices and sensitivities of financial option prices for European, Asian, American and Digital options in the Black Scholes model, and in more general jump diffusion models. Furthermore, based on the implementations of Vega, efficient funcions for calculting implied volatilities not just for European options, but also for American, Asian and digital options are provided.

Classical formulas are implemented for European options in the Black Scholes Model. Furthermore, functions to calculate Malliavin Monte Carlo Greeks are given, as presented e.g., in Hudde, A. & Rüschendorf, L. (2016). European and Asian Greeks for exponential Lévy processes (https://arxiv.org/abs/1603.00920). These functions work for classical payoff functions, as well as for any custom square integrable function provided by the user. Additionally, these calculations are not restricted to the Black Scholes model, but work for more general Lévy Jump diffusion model, which is also customizable by the user.

`{r } # The cran version can be installed by install.packages("greeks") # The development version can be installed by install.packages("devtools") library("devtools") devtools::install_github("anselmhudde/greeks")`

Most of the options prices and Greeks can easily can calculated with the function Greeks.

```
# Load package
library(greeks)
# Option price and most common Greeks of an European call option on a share with
# price 100 and volatility of 30%, where the exercise price is 120, the time to
# maturity of 5 years, and the riskless interest rate of 1%.
Greeks(initial_price = 100,
exercise_price = 120,
r = 0.01,
time_to_maturity = 5,
volatility = 0.30,
payoff = "call")
## fair_value delta vega theta rho
## 21.577149923 0.554941778 88.358901748 -2.989937331 169.585139380
## gamma
## 0.005890593
# Option price and most common Greeks of an American put option on a share with
# price 100 and volatility of 25%, where the exercise price is 100, the time to
# maturity of 1 year, and the riskless interest rate of -0.5%.
Greeks(initial_price = 100,
exercise_price = 100,
r = -0.005,
time_to_maturity = 1,
volatility = 0.30,
payoff = "put",
option_type = "American")
## fair_value delta vega theta rho gamma
## 12.2027075 -0.4469782 39.5313017 -6.2141979 -56.9005269 -0.1275472
```

The package `greeks`

also provides a function to compute implied volatilies for a wide range of options types and payoff functions:

```
# Implied volatiliy of an Asian digital call option with on a share with price
# 65, with exercise price of 50, a time to maturity of 3 months, and an option
# price of 5.52:
Implied_Volatility(option_prize = 0.01,
initial_price = 65,
exercise_price = 50,
r = 0,
time_to_maturity = 0.25,
dividend_yield = 0,
model = "Black_Scholes",
option_type = "Asian",
payoff = "digital_call",
start_volatility = 0.3,
max_iter = 100,
precision = 1e-9)
```